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Successful Strategies to fight Obesity and Weight Gain
Read the full Article on Successful Strategies to fight Obesity and Weight Gain


Essential Fatty Acid References

      These references refer to the article, Essential Fatty Acids .

(1) Vegetarian Society, Information Sheet on Omega 3 fats http://www.vegsoc.org/info/omega3.html

(2) Bang HO, Dyerberg J, Horne N. The composition of food consumed by Greenland Eskimos. Acta Med Scand 1976;200:69-73

(3) Owen PA. Coronary thrombosis. Its mechanism and possible prevention by linolenic acid. Ann Intern Med 1965;62:167-84

(4) Billman GE, Hallaq H, Leaf A. Prevention of ischemic-induced ventricular fibrillation by n-3 fatty acids. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994;91:4427-30

(5) Kleiger RE, Miller JP, Bigger JT, Moss AJ, et al. Decreased heart rate variability and its association with increased mortality after acute acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1987;59:256-62

(6) Christensen JH, Christensen MS, Dyerberg J, Schmidt EB. Heart rate variability and fatty acid content of blood cell membranes: a dose-response study with n-3 fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:331-7

(7) Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, et al. Dietary intake of linolenic acid and risk of fatal IHD among women. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:890-7

(8) Burr ML, Fehily AM, Gilbert JF, et al. Effects of changes in fat, fish, and fibre intakes on death and myocardial infarction: diet and reinfarction trial (DART). Lancet 1989;2:757-61

(9) Nair SSD, Leitch JW, Falconer J, Garg ML. Prevention of cardiac arrhythmia by dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid and their mechanism of action. J Nutr 1997;127:383-93

(10) de Lorgeril M, Renaud S, Mamelle N, et al. Mediterranean alpha-linolenic acid-rich diet in secondary prevention of coronary artery heart disease. Lancet 1994;343:1454-9

(11) Woodman RJ, Mori TA, Burke V, Puddey IB, Watts GF, Beilin LJ. Effects of purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on glycemic control, blood pressure, and serum lipids in type 2 diabetic patients with treated hypertension. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:1007-15.

(12) Howe PR. Dietary fats and hypertension. Focus on fish oil. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1997;827:339-52.

(13) Morris MC, Sacks F, Rosner B. Does fish oil lower blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled trials. Circulation 1993;88:523-33.

(14) Appel LJ, Miller ER 3d, Seidler AJ, Whelton PK. Does supplementation of diet with 'fish oil' reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Arch Intern Med 1993;153:1429-38.

(15) Kremer JM, Lawrence DA, Jubiz W, DiGiacomo R, Rynes R, Bartholomew LE, et al. Dietary fish oil and olive oil supplementation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical and immunologic effects. Arthritis Rheum 1990;33:810-20.

(16) Cleland LG, French JK, Betts WH, Murphy GA, Elliott MJ. Clinical and biochemical effects of dietary fish oil supplements in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1988;15:1471-5.

(17) Volker D, Fitzgerald P, Major G, Garg M. Efficacy of fish oil concentrate in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 2000;27:2343-6.

(18) Lau CS, Morley KD, Belch JJ. Effects of fish oil supplementation on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug requirement in patients with mild rheumatoid arthritis-a double-blind placebo controlled study. Br J Rheumatol 1993;32:982-9.

(19) James MJ, Cleland LG. Dietary n-3 fatty acids and therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Semin Arthritis Rheum 1997;27:85-97.

( 20) Green, V.A., K.A. Pituch, J. Itchon, A. Choi, M. O'Reilly, J. Sigafoos, "Internet survey of treatments used by parents of children with autism," Res Dev Disabil, 2006, 27(1):70-84.

(21) Young, G., and J. Conquer. 2005. "Omega-3 fatty acids and neuropsychiatric disorders." Reprod.Nutr.Dev 45(1):1-28.

(22) Genuis, S.J.a.G.K.S. 2006. "Time for an oil check: the role of essential omega-3 fatty acids in maternal and pediatric health." Journal of Perinatology 26:359-365.

(23) Richardson, A.J. 2006. "Omega-3 fatty acids in ADHD and related neurodevelopmental disorders." Int.Rev.Psychiatry 18(2):155-172.

(24) Richardson, A.J., and M.A. Ross. 2000. "Fatty acid metabolism in neurodevelopmental disorder: a new perspective on associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, dyspraxia and the autistic spectrum." Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 63(1-2):1-9.

(25) Bell, J.G., et al. 2004. "Essential fatty acids and phospholipase A2 in autistic spectrum disorders." Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 71(4):201-204.

(26) Johnson, S.M., and E. Hollander. 2003. "Evidence that eicosapentaenoic acid is effective in treating autism." J Clin Psychiatry 64(7):848-849.

(27) Simopoulos AP, Cleland LG (eds): "omega-6/omega-3 Essential Fatty Acid Ratio: The Scientific Evidence." World Rev Nutr Diet. Basel, Karger, 2003, Vol 92.

(28) Okuyama H. High n-6 to n-3 ratio of dietary fatty acids rather than serum cholesterol as a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol. 2001; 103:418-22.

(29) Simopoulos AP, Leaf A, Salem Jr N. Statement on the essentiality of and recommended dietary intakes for omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 2000;63:119-121.

(30) Erasmus, Udo, Fats and Oils. 1986. Alive books, Vancouver, ISBN 0-920470-16-5 p. 263

(31) Essential Fats in Food Oils, NIH page - http://efaeducation.nih.gov/sig/esstable.html

(32) W.E.M. Lands (1992). Biochemistry and physiology of n-3 fatty acids. FASEB J 6: 2530-2536

(33) Kohn A, Gitelman J, Inbar M. Unsaturated free fatty acids inactivate animal enveloped viruses. Arch Virol. 1980;66(4):301-7.

(34) Bang, HO, Dyerberg, J, and Hjorne N. Acta Med Scand, 200: 69-73, 1976.

(35) Carroll KK. Lipids, 1992.

(36) Reddy BS. Lipids, 1992.

(37) Rose, DP and Connolly, JM. Lipids, 1992.

(38) Roebuck, BD. Lipids, 1992.

(39) Booyens, J. IRCS Medical Science, 14: 396, 1986.

(40) Shao, Y, Pardini, L and Pardini, RS. Lipids, 1995.

(41) Aronson WJ, Glaspy JA, Reddy ST, Reese D, Heber D, Bagga D. Modulation of omega-3/omega-6 polyunsaturated ratios with dietary fish oils in men with prostate cancer. Urology. 2001;58(2):283-288.

(42) Danao-Camara TC, Shintani TT. The dietary treatment of inflammatory arthritis: case reports and review of the literature. Hawaii Med J. 1999;58(5):126-13

(43) de Deckere EAM. Possible beneficial effect of fish and fish n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast and colorectal cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1999;8:213-221.

(44) Griffini P, Fehres O, Klieverik L, et al. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids promote colon carcinoma metastasis in rat liver. Can Res. 1998;58(15):3312-3319.

(45) Terry P, Lichtenstein P, Feychting M, Ahlbom A, Wolk A. Fatty fish consumption and risk of prostate cancer. Lancet. 2001;357(9270):1764-1766.

(46) Tsai W-S, Nagawa H, Kaizaki S, Tsuruo T, Muto T. Inhibitory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on sigmoid colon cancer transformants. J Gastroenterol. 1998;33:206-212.

(47) http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/2003/503_fats.html

(48) H Thormar, C E Isaacs, H R Brown, M R Barshatzky and T Pessolano, Inactivation of enveloped viruses and killing of cells by fatty acids and monoglycerides, Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1987 January; 31(1): 27-31

(49) United States Patent 4,841,023 Horowitz June 20, 1989




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