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R Lipoic Acid References

      These references apply to the article on R Lipoic Acid .

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2. Carreau JP. Biosynthesis of lipoic acid via unsaturated fatty acids. Meth Enzmol 1979;62:152-158.

3. Dupre S, Spoto G, Materese RM, et al. Biosynthesis of alpha-lipoic acid in the rat: Incorporation of S- and C-labeled precursors. Arch Biochem Biophys 1980;202:361-365.

4. Packer L, Witt EH, Tritschler HJ. Alpha-lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant. Free Rad Biol Med 1995;19:227-250.

5. Rosenburg HR, Culik R. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid on vitamin C and vitamin E deficiencies. Arch Biochem Biophys 1959;80:86-93.

6. Podda M, Tritschler HJ, Ulrich H, Packer L. Alpha-lipoic acid supplementation prevents symptoms of vitamin E deficiency. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994;204:98-104.

7. Xu DP, Wells WW. alpha-lipoic acid dependent regeneration of ascorbic acid from dehydroascorbic acid in rat liver mitochondria. J Bioenerg Biomembr 1996;28:77-85.

8. Scholich H, Murphy ME, Sies H. Antioxidant activity of dihydrolipoate against microsomal lipid peroxidation and its dependence on a-tocopherol. Biochem Biophys Acta 1989;1001:256-261.

9. Busse E, Zimmer G, Schopohl B, et al. Influence of alpha-lipoic acid on intracellular glutathione in vitro and in vivo. Arzneimittel-Forschung 1992;42:829-831.

<10. Kagan V, Serbinova E, Packer L. Antioxidant effects of ubiquinones in microsomes and mitochondria are mediated by tocopherol recycling. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 1990;169:851-857.

11. Passwater RA. Lipoic Acid: The Metabolic Antioxidant. New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing, Inc; 1995:1-47.

12. Scott BC, Arouma OI, Evans PJ, et al. Lipoic and dihydrolipoic acid as antioxidants: a critical evaluation. Free Rad Res 1994;20:119-133.

13. Suzuki YJ, Tsuchiya M, Packer L. Thiotic acid and dihydrolipoic acid are novel antioxidants which interact with reactive oxygen species. Free Rad Res Comms 1991;15:255-263.

14. Sandhya P, Mohandass S, Varalakshmi P. Role of DL alpha-lipoic acid in gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. Mol Cell Biochem 1995;145:11-17.

15. Sigel H, Prijs B, McCormick DB, Shih JCH. Stability of binary and ternary complexes of alpha-lipoate and lipoate derivatives with Mn2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ in solution. Arch Biochem Biophys 1978;187:208-214.

16. Devasagayam TP, Subramanian M, Pradhan DS, Sies H. Prevention of singlet oxygen induced DNA damage by lipoate. Chem-Biol Interations 1993;86:79-92.

17. Bast A, Haenen GR. Interplay between lipoic acid and glutathione in the protection against microsomal lipid peroxidation. Biochem Biophys Acta 1988;963:558-561.

18. Grunert RR. The effect of DL alpha-lipoic acid on heavy-metal intoxication in mice and dogs. Arch Biochem Biophys 1960;86:190-194.

19. Ou P, Tritschler HJ, Wolff SP. Thioctic (lipoic) acid: a therapeutic metal-chelating antioxidant? Biochem Pharmacol 1995;50:123-126.

20. Muller L, Menzel H. Studies on the efficacy of lipoate and dihydrolipoate in the alteration of cadmium toxicity in isolated hepatocytes. Biochem Biophys Acta 1990;1052:386-391.

21. Sumathi R, Baskaran G, Varalakshmi P. Relationship between glutathione and DL alpha-lipoic acid against cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity. Jpn J Med Sci Biol 1996;49:39-48.

22. Sumathi R, Devi VK, Varalakshmi P. DL alpha-lipoic acid protection against cadmium-induced tissue lipid peroxidation. Med Sci Res 1994;22:23-25.

23. Keith RL, Setiarahardjo I, Fernando Q, et al. Utilization of renal slices to evaluate the efficacy of chelating agents for removing mercury from the kidney. Toxicology 1997;116:67-75.

24. Gregus Z, Stein AF, Varga F. Effect of lipoic acid on biliary excretion of glutathione and metals. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1992;114:88-96.

25. Strodter D, Lehmann E, Lehmann U, et al. The influence of thioctic acid on metabolism and function of the diabetic heart. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1995;29:19-26.

26. Estrada DE, Ewart HS, Tsakiridis T, et al. Stimulation of glucose uptake by the natural coenzyme alpha-lipoic acid/thioctic acid: participation of elements of the insulin signaling pathway. Diabetes 1996;45:1798-1804.

27. Faust A, Burkart V, Ulrich H et al. Effect of lipoic acid on cyclophosphamide-induced diabetes and insulitis in nonobese diabetic mice. Int J Immunopharmac 1994;16:61-66.

28. Henricksen EJ, Jacob S, Tritschler HJ, et al. Chronic thioctic treatment increases insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity in skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats. Diabetes 1994;Supplement 1:122A [abstract].

29. Kawabata T, Packer L. Alpha-lipoate can protect against glycation of serum albumin, but not low density lipoprotein. Biochem Biophys Res Comms 1994;203:99-104.

30. Jacob S, Henriksen EJ, Schiemann AL, et al. Enhancement of glucose disposal in patients with type 2 diabetes by alpha-lipoic acid. Arzneimittel-Forschung 1995;45:872-874.

31. Jacob S, Henriksen EJ, Tritschler HJ, et al. Improvement of insulin-stimulated glucose-disposal in type 2 diabetes after repeated parenteral administration of thioctic acid. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 1996;104:284-288.

32. Garrett NE, Malcangio M, Dewhurst M, Tomlinson DR. alpha-lipoic acid corrects neuropeptide deficits in diabetic rats via induction of trophic support. Neurosci Lett 1997;222:191-194.

33. Nagamatsu M, Nickander KK, Schmelzer JD. Lipoic acid improves nerve blood flow, reduces oxidative stress, and improves distal nerve conduction in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic Care 1995;18:1160-1166.

34. Ziegler D, Hanefield M, Ruhnau KJ, et al. Treatment of symptomatic diabetic peripheral neuropathy with the anti-oxidant alpha-lipoic acid. A 3-week multicenter randomized controlled trial (ALADIN Study). Diabetologia 1995;38:1425-1433.

35. Kehler W, Kuklinski B, Ruhlmann C, Plotz C. Diabetes mellitus-a free radical associated disease: Effects of adjuvant supplementation of antioxidants. In: Gries FA, Wessel K, eds. The role of antioxidants in diabetes mellitus: Oxygen radicals and anti-oxidants in diabetes. Frankfurt am Maine: pmi. Verl-Gruppe; 1993:33-53.

36. Ou P, Nourooz-Zadeh J, Tritschler HJ, Wolff SP. Activation of aldose reductase in rat lens and metal-ion chelation by aldose reductase inhibitors and lipoic acid. Free Radic Res 1996;25:337-346.

37. Maitra I, Serbinova E, Tritschler HJ, Packer L. Alpha-lipoic acid prevents buthionine sulfoximine-induced cataract formation in newborn rats. Free Radic Biol Med 1995;18:823-829.

38. Maitra I, Serbinova E, Tritschler HJ, Packer L. Stereospecific effects of R-lipoic acid on buthionine sulfoximine-induced cataract formation in newborn rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1996;221:422-429.

39. Filina AA, Davydova NG, Endrikhovskii SN, et al. Lipoic acid as a means of metabolic therapy of open-angle glaucoma. Vestn Oftalmol 1995;111:6-8.

40. Scheer B, Zimmer G. Dihydrolipoic acid prevents hypoxic/reoxygenation and peroxidative damage in rat mitochondria. Arch Biochem Biophys 1993;302:385-390.

41. Assadnazari H, Zimmer G, Freisleben HJ, et al. Cardioprotective efficiency of dihydrolipoic acid in working rat hearts during hypoxia and reoxygenation. P nuclear magnetic resonance investigations. Arzneimittel-Forschung 1993;43:425-432.

42. Prehn JH, Karkoutly C, Nuglisch J, et al. Dihydrolipoate reduces neuronal injury after cerebral ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1992;12:78-87.

43. Wolz P, Krieglstein J. Neuroprotective effects of alpha-lipoic acid and its enantiomers demonstrated in rodent models of focal cerebral ischemia. Neuropharmacology 1996;35:369-375.

44. Panigrahi M, Sadguna Y, Shivakumar BR, et al. alpha-lipoic acid protects against reperfusion injury following cerebral ischemia in rats. Brain Res 1996;717:184-188.

45. Cao X, Phillis JW. The free radical scavenger, alpha-lipoic acid, protects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in gerbils. Free Rad Res 1995;23:365-70.

46. Haramaki N, Assadnazari H, Zimmer G, et al. The influence of vitamin E and dihydrolipoic acid on cardiac energy and glutathione status under hypoxia-reoxygenation. Biochem Mol Biol Int 1995;37:591-597.

47. Bartter FC, Berkson B, Gallelli J, et al. Thiotic acid in the treatment of poisoning with alpha-amanitin. In: Faulstich H, Kommerell B, Wieland T, eds. Amanita Toxins and Poisoning. Badan-Baden. Verlg Gerhard Witzstrock; 1980:197-202.

48. Nagy I, Pogatsa-Murray G, Zalanyi S Jr, et al. Amanita poisoning during the second trimester of pregnancy. A case report and a review of the literature. Clin Investig 1994;72:794-798.

49. Sabeel AI, Kurkus J, Lindholm T. Intensive hemodialysis and hemoperfusion treatment of Amanita mushroom poisoning. Mycopathologia 1995;131:107-114.

50. Gal EM. Reversal of selective toxicity of (-)-alpha-lipoic acid by thiamine in thiamine-deficient rats. Nature 1965;207:535.

51. Gregus Z, Fekete T, Halaszi E, Klaassen CD. Lipoic acid impairs glycine conjugation of benzoic acid and renal excretion of benzoylglycine. Drug Metab Dispos 1996;24:682-688.

52. Packer L, Tritschler HJ, Wessel K. Neuroprotection by the metabolic antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid. Free Radic Biol Med 1997;22(1-2):359-78.

53. L. Packer, E.H.Witt, H.J. Tritschler, Free Rad Biol and Med 1995; 19: 227-250.

54. Lykkesfeldt J, Hagen TM, Vinarsky V, Ames BN. Age-associated decline in ascorbic acid concentration, recycling, and biosynthesis in rat hepatocytes--reversal with (R)-alpha-lipoic acid supplementation. FASEB J 1998 Sep;12(12):1183-9.

55. Liu J, Atamna H, Kuratsune H, Ames BN. Delaying brain mitochondrial decay and aging with mitochondrial antioxidants and metabolites. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002 Apr;959:133-66.

56. Liu J, Head E, Gharib AM, Yuan W, Ingersoll RT, Hagen TM, Cotman CW, Ames BN. Memory loss in old rats is associated with brain mitochondrial decay and RNA/DNA oxidation: partial reversal by feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and/or R-alpha -lipoic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002 Feb 19;99(4):2356-61.

57. Hagen TM, Liu J, Lykkesfeldt J, Wehr CM, Ingersoll RT, Vinarsky V, Bartholomew JC, Ames BN. Feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid to old rats significantly improves metabolic function while decreasing oxidative stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002 Feb 19;99(4):1870-5.

58. Hofmann M, Mainka P, Tritschler H, Fuchs J, Zimmer G. Decrease of red cell membrane fluidity and -SH groups due to hyperglycemic conditions is counteracted by alpha-lipoic acid. Arch Biochem Biophys 1995 Dec 1;324(1):85-92.

59. Haramaki N, Assadnazari H, Zimmer G, Schepkin V, Packer L. The influence of vitamin E and dihydrolipoic acid on cardiac energy and glutathione status under hypoxia-reoxygenation. Biochem Mol Biol Int 1995 Oct;37(3):591-7. 9. Zimmer G, Beikler TK, Schneider M, Ibel J, Tritschler H, Ulrich H. Dose/response curves of lipoic acid R-and S-forms in the working rat heart during reoxygenation: superiority of the R-enantiomer in enhancement of aortic flow. J Mol Cell Cardiol 1995 Sep;27(9):1895-903.

60. Haramaki N, Packer L, Assadnazari H, Zimmer G. Cardiac recovery during post-ischemic reperfusion is improved by combination of vitamin E with dihydrolipoic acid. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1993 Nov 15;196(3):1101-7.

61. Moini, H., Tirosh, O., R-Alpha Lipoic Acid Action on Cell Redox Status, the Insulin Receptor, and Glucose Uptake in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes; Archives of Biochem & BioPhys 397, No2 384-391 (2002).

62. Liu, J. Killilea, D.W. et.al., Age-associated mitochondrial oxidative decay: Improvement of carnitine acetyltransferase substrate binding affinity and activity in brain by feeding old rats acetyl-L-carnitine and/or R-alpha-lipoic acid. Proc Nat Acad Sci 99, 1876-1881 (2002).

63. Hager, K., Marahrens, A.,et.al. Alpha lipoic acid as a new treatment option for Alzheimer type dementia, Arch Geron Geriatr 32 (3): 275-282 (2001).

64. Hermann, R.; Niebch, G.; Enantioselective pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of different racemic alpha lipoic acid formulations in healthy volunteers. Eur J Pharm Sci 4: 167-174 (1996).







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